Boundaries And Topography
The district was situated between 77.46′ and 80.01′,of the eastern longitudes and 18.40′ and 19.56′, of northern latitudes.The district is bounded on north by Yeotmal and Chanda district of Maharastra, on the east by Chanda district, on the south by Karimnagar and Nizamabad districts and on the west by Nanded district of Maharastra State.
The district has population of 20,79,098 which accounts for 3.13% of the total population of the State.
The district derives its name from Adilabad, its headquarters town which was named after the ruler of Bijapur, Ali Adil Shah. The district was for long not a homogenius unit and its component parts were ruled at different periods by nasties namely, the Mauryas, Staavahanas, Vakatakas, Chaludyasof Badami, Rashtrakututs, Chalukyas of Kalyani, Mughals, Bhosle Rajes of Nagpur and Asaf Jahis, besides the Gond Rajas of Sirpur and Chanda. Originally this was not full fledged district but a sub-district named Sirpur-Tandur which was created in A.D. 1872 with Edlabad (Adilabad), Rajura and Sirpur as its consistuents talukas. In 1905 the status of this sub-district was raised to that of an independent district with head quarters at Adilabad.
The climate of the district is characterized by hot summer and in generally dry except during the south-west monsoon season. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to May. The period from june to september constitute the south west monsoon season, while October and November from the postmonsoon season.
The rainfall in the district, in general increases from the south-west towards the north east. About 85% of annual rainfall is received during the south-west monsoon season. July being the peak rainy month. The variation in the Annual rainfall from year is not large. The normal Annual rainfall of the district is 1044.5mm.
There is a meterological obervatory, station at headquarters Adilabad. The cold weather commences towards the end of November when the temperature begins to fall rapidly. December is generally the coldest month, with the mean daily maximum temprature at about 29 C and the mininum daily is 15 C.
The relative humidities are high generally during the south-west monsoon season. The air is generally dry during the rest of the year, the district part of the year being the summer season when the humidity in the afternoon is 25%.
During the south-west monsoon season the sky is heavily clouded. There is rapid decrease of cloudings the post-monsoon season. In the rest year the sky is mostly clear of light clouded.
Winds are light to moderate with some strengthening in the period from May to August. During the post-monsoon and cold season, winds blow mostly from the east or north-east. By March, south westerlies and westerlies start blowing and continue during the rest of summer. The sought west monsoon season winds are mostly from directions between south-west and north west.
Hills And Rivers
The Sahyadriparvat or Satnala range traverses the district from the north-west to the south-east for about 281.5 Kms. In this range the Mahbubghat is the hightest peak. In the eastern portion of the district some hills and hillocks are of minor importance.
The most important river that drains the district is the river Godavari. The Pengange, the Wardha, and the Pranahita com next importance. The Kadam and the Peddavagu are tributeries of the Godavari. Besides these, there are also rivults like the Satnala, the Swarna vagu, and the Suddavagu which drain the district. The Godavari which is the largest river inpeninsular India raises in the western Ghats at Trambakeshwar near Nasik in Maharastra state and enters this district near Basara in Mudhole Taluk. This mighty river forms the boundary of the district separating the district from Nizamabad and Karimnagar districts and skirts the southern borders of Chennur, Luxettipet, Khanaapur, Nirmal and Mudhole east – while taluks. The penganga forms part of the northern boundary of the district in Adilabad, while the wardha and the Pranahita from the northern and eastern boundaries of the district, skirting earst – while Sirpur and chennur taluks respectively. The Kaddam river takes its origin at Bothai village in east – while Sirpur and Chennur taluks respectively. The Kaddam river takes its origin at Bothai village in east – while Boath taluk and flowing across this taluk and enters Khanapur at Paspula and finally falls into Godawari. The Peddawagu flows across the east – while taluks of Asifabad and Sirpur. the Satnala, Swarnavagu and Suddha vagu rivers flow across the east while taluks of geology and mineral resources.
The Population of the district according to 2001 census is 24,79,347 of which the rural population accounts for 18,23,004 or 73.52% of the total, while the urban population accounts for 6,56,343 forming 26.48% of the total population. The increase in population during decennial ending 1991 over 1981 is 26.85%, which is higher that of the state. The female population is less namely, 980 females for every 1000 males.
The density of population of the district is 129 persons per sq.km. as against the State average of 241 persons per sq.km. out of the total population of the district, 3.86 Lakhs persons are scheduled castes and 3.55 Lakhs persons are scheduled Tribes forming 18.57% and 17.08% of the total population respectively.
The total No. Of workers is 9,34,3365 constituting 44.93% of the total population as against the state average of 45.27% out of the total main workers, cultivators from 34.09% Agricultural laboureres from 34.88%.
The literate persons in Adilabad district are 5,78,226 forming 27.80% of the total population as against the state average if 37.8. The percentage of literacy in the district increased from 18.79% in 1981 to 27.80 in 1991. It is lower that the state average which increased from 30% in 1981 to 37.58% in 1991.